Tag Archives: Pink Floyd

T’Internet – A Bootleg Fan’s Paradise

A brief look at the development of bootleg trading and its transformation after the introduction of the internet. The article looks at new electronic trading systems and questions what the future of bootleg trading may be in light of The Who making their own concert bootlegs and selling them!


a re-pressing of the first rock vinyl bootleg by Bob Dylan called Great White Wonder.
Above: a re-pressing of the first rock vinyl bootleg by Bob Dylan called Great White Wonder. Below: An old TDK C60 cassette tape!
An old TDK C60 cassette tape!

The first ever vinyl rock bootleg recording is commonly believed to be of Bob Dylan which had live tracks and basement recordings dating back to 1961 circulated around 1969. It was a collection of demos which went by the name of “Great White Wonder”. There are other recordings which precede this one but many are jazz and opera performances which may not be of interest to many rock fans! Since that first recording, the process of people copying and sharing these live recordings with each other has grown and grown and, of course, the internet has changed the process of sharing and opened up the hobby to many more people!

Classified Recordings

Back in the old days, people used to place adverts in classified sections of the music press and fanzines in order to get in touch with people who were trading live bootleg recordings. This time consuming process could have taken several weeks before you got your hands on your favourite bands unofficial recordings which were usually done by a member of the audience with a portable recording device. Record fairs were also a great place to pick up bootleg recordings up until it was made illegal by a General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Treaty in 1988 made that activity less visible!

Additionally, the “generation” of the recording was a major issue as people were mainly trading with each other using cassette tapes around the 1990s. When you make a copy of a cassette tape, it gradually looses quality the more copies are made down the line. Thus higher generation copies of the original recording were sometimes at bit rubbish if you were not fortunate enough to be in the “inner circle” of bootleg traders obtaining low generation ones.

Although there were issue with copy generation quality and it took longer to trade, people would wait in anticipation of their post man bringing them a gem in the post that they had been waiting for. They may have appreciated more what they had as a good quality bootleg was certainly a less common possession that they are today.

Total Eclipse - A Retrospective 1967-1993 from Great Dane Records, GDR CD 9320, from 1993
Total Eclipse – A Retrospective 1967-1993 from Great Dane Records, GDR CD 9320, from 1993

With the ever increasing acceptance of the compact disc in the early 90s by the general public, pressed CDs were the new gem to get hold of. Once excellent example is the Total Eclipse from Great Dane records of Italy. The manufacture of bootlegs by some bands in Italy was actually illegal until a tightening of the law prevented it!

Enter Internet Stage Left

One of the main “costs” of bootleg trading was actually finding new people to trade with. No doubt people built up a contact list of people they had traded with in the past and kept in regular communication via snail mail, but acquiring new trading partners would still have been time consuming!


The advent of the internet as a means of communication revolutionised the world of bootleg trading. It brought the hobby from out of the printed media world into the inter-connected digital global village! The dawn of USENET chat rooms had begun!

USENET (UserNetwork) is a distributed server system that uses articles read like email which allows communities of people to communicate with one another. There were (and still are I might add) message boards where people could find trading partners for their favourite bands and thus share their lists of bootlegs and find people to trade with. This took away a lot of the cost of finding people to trade with.

Forums/Message Boards

Another system whereby fans of a band could communicate with one another to discuss topics and find trading partners are discussion boards/ forums. Forums are communities of people who can start topics to discuss and reply to each other thus forming threads of conversation for all to share in. Message boards have probably taken over from USENET as a means for finding trading partners for those who wish to trade via post probably due to their ease of use as they integrate neatly into websites.

Digital Technologies

Although people were now finding trading partners on the internet, people were still trading cassette tapes. Low generation tapes which were far removed from the original lost much of the sound quality due to reproduction loosing vital details in the sound signal.

The advancement of Digital Audio Converters which turned the analogue sound from cassette tapes into digital media files again revolutionised the world of bootleg recordings. It is also causing headaches for record companies and artists today who are faced with people making perfect digital copies of officially released material.

The advancement of trading digital media files as opposed to copying cassette tapes meant that thousands of people could now get perfect copies of the original recording without loosing sound quality each time the recording was copied! The internet was really taking shape for traders.

Now that people had established communities to discuss bands and find traders and digital media files were making it possible for people to trade, people got cheeky! Not content with being able to contact people around the world from their home computer and being able to trade lossless audio, they were now wanting a technology to make things even easier!!

Lossless Media Files

When an analogue file is converted to digital, the digital file is rather large in size! If only these files could be “compressed” down to a smaller file size but without loosing any of the audio quality! Enter the compressed lossless media files!

WAV files could now be compressed in file size using the .shorten file format and algorithm and, later, along came the improved FLAC format. These formats are about 50% the size of a WAV file so are ideal for trading with people around the world as you can trade more for the same cost via post and you can also download the smaller files in less time using less bandwidth!!


Although the internet started out primarily as a communications tool, file sharing soon became a possibility with the advent of digital media files. People were now able to upload their media files to web servers so that other people could download and enjoy them. This was a further leap forward for trading. Unfortunately, during this period in the development of the internet, trading and media files, most people had dial-up connections which were slow and cumbersome. Servers were also expensive to own and operate: especially for sharing large files. People were still primarily trading by copying CDRs for each other.

The MP3 format became the choice for many people as the file size was a tiny fraction of the original recording. But as the cost of downloading in terms of time and money was diminished by MP3, so was sound quality! MP3s are such small files because much of the original quality of the recording is simply deleted to leave behind a much worse “approximation” of what the original sound file sounded like!

Advancement of Broadband

Broadband CablesFortunately for traders who wanted to trade online in addition to trading via the post, broadband connections to the internet were on the increase meaning people could comfortably download large lossless media files in a timely manner. The increasing number of broadband connections is currently pushing 2 download methods in particular which allow people to trade bootleg recordings with each other.

In addition to people making bootlegs available on web servers so people could download from a web page, there are software programs known as peer-to-peer software which allow people to connect to other users on the internet and share files amongst themselves. Some of these are explored below.


One of the oldest forms of sharing was using File Transfer Protocol servers which people can run from their personal computers and give the details to access their share to people on the internet. People would run servers on their computer to share material and give people access to a certain folder on their hard drive by giving them a username and password. NPF used to run an FTP server back in the day but had to be closed down eventually as is was unusable by most due to connection restrictions and the amount of people wanting to download from it!

Direct Connect

Direct Connect is a system which has a central server called a Hub that you connect to with a piece of suitable software. The most common Direct Connect software for Windows is called DC++. Basically, you have digital media files on your computer which you are making available to share on the Direct Connect Hub. When you connect to the hub, all the other users can download the files from you that you have made available. Likewise, you are able to browse and search the files that everyone else is sharing.

Some of the major drawbacks of Direct Connect are that you can only download a file from someone so long as they are online and connected to the Hub. Additionally, you can only download a particular file from one person at a time. If you have a very fast broadband connection and the person you are downloading from is not offering much bandwidth to your download, you could be waiting a long time to download!!

Torrent Download

The author believes torrent downloads are a superior solution to Direct Connect because you can download one particular file from multiple people at once! So, if you have fast broadband and there are several people sharing the particular torrent you are downloading, it can be a lot quicker!

Torrent sites work in a similar way to Direct Connect in that there are “peers” or users who are connecting to a central server in order to download files from the users connected to the server. When a file is “torrented” a small text file is created with the .torrent file extension which has the details about the file/s being shared including file names and, beneficially, details about how the file/s have been split up into smaller pieces. A 100MB file, for example, may be split into 100 X 1Mb files. This means you can download from, potentially, 100 people at once!

No Peeing in the Pool!

Image above shows a frequency spectrum analysis of a high quality WAV file.
The image above shows the same spectrum analysis for an MP3 file. Lots of data is destroyed when converting to MP3!

Read a MSWord Doc about why trading MP3s is not desirable!

As previously mentioned, the advancement of digital media files and the drive to reduce file size led to the invention of MP3 files. MP3s give up sound quality in favour of smaller file sizes. It achieves this by deleting certain frequency bands that humans cannot hear anyway and also takes less “samples” of the original audio. By taking less samples of less frequencies and applying compression technologies, the files were and still are quicker to download.

The introduction of digital media files was a breakthrough for trading as you could get hold of a perfect copy of the first generation digital copy! There was no loss in quality compared to copying cassette tapes which introduced static noise and lost quality due to dirty head and the limitations of the technology. Unfortunately, digital media files became a double edged sword!

People who trade MP3s and pass them off as being copies of the original digital media files are polluting the trading pool and spoiling the recordings that are available for collectors to enjoy. Downloading or trading via post for something you believe is a perfect copy of the original is rewarding when you get a copy of the original. But it can be disheartening when you receive a sub-standard recording!

There are two solutions for all involved. People should not burn MP3s to discs as audio discs and then trade them with other people. This greatly increases the risk of passing on sub-standard audio. Additionally, something called MD5 files can be used for people downloading to both verify they have a perfect copy of a download and they can compare the contents of the MD5 file to a database of original recordings perhaps to ensure they have an original first generation copy!

The Future of Trading?

The Who Encore Series Bootlegs: the band bootlegging themselves!

The introduction of the internet as a means to communicate and share bootleg recordings transformed trading from the early days of responding to classified ads in music publications, into a world wide network of traders. Costs in terms of time finding traders and then waiting for the postman have been eroded and new challenges added in the form of lossy MP3 files. But what could the future hold?

Whilst running the risk of sounding like the people on Tomorrows World predicting that everyone would be driving round in the Sinclair C5 everywhere, is it as ludicrous to suggest that record companies may actually put a system in place to make money from bootleg trading?

People trade bootlegs with one another for free and no money usually changes hands bar a stamp or two. So how could record companies make money from bootleg trading and how could that affect the future of trading?

Peer-to-peer file sharing networks like the old Napster that had millions of people sharing officially released and copyrighted material were shut down after legal battles between record companies, artist representative bodies and the illegal sites. Many still exist of course. But there are many now legitimate sites which are perfectly legal using the format that the old Napster pioneered only slightly changed. For a fee, people can download and listen to as much as they like on the new Napster and iTunes without breaking the law. Is it possible that record companies will try to make money from bootleg trading?

Even though concert recordings made by fans in the audience are not “official releases” they are still reproductions of copyrighted material and are, technically, against the law to own and reproduce. They are quite illegal in many cases and against the terms signed between concert promoters and artists, for example.

The only way that record companies could feasibly attempt to phase out bootleg trading where the artists and record companies make no money would be for artists to record their own live shows and make them available on official websites. But that is not really likely considering bands and labels would want the material released in excellent quality which would mean quality recordings and post-production being done. It may not be a viable business model “acceptable” to bootleg collectors who may want to have several if not all recordings from every night of every tour of their favourite band!!

Saying that though, The Who recently released all of their concert recordings on CD/DVD for a small fee (proceeds going to charity) and even distributed them in bootlegger style wallets with basic artwork!! Perhaps The Who will pioneer in this area of selling bootlegs of themselves and cause other bands to follow suit who are currently in the mainstream!

So, unless record companies vigorously pursue torrent and Direct Connect websites with cease and desist orders, as well as suing individual traders who trade by post, the status quo of people sharing all sorts of files and recording on and off line will continue well into the future!


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The Floyd’s Primal Scream By Andy Gibbons

In this article, Andy Gibbons takes us from the political scene of 1968 when the early threads of ‘Careful With That Axe, Eugene’ were sewn together, through a multitude of dimensions and view points up until the raw energy of that scream was expressed as The Wall.


Roger Waters circa 1968

It is May 1968. In Paris the streets erupt into protests which threaten to topple the government and across the world youth is rising in a cry of rage against the Vietnam war.

On the 23rd of May 1968 Pink Floyd plays a new instrumental at the Paradiso in Amsterdam. Based on a two note bass riff underpinning a guitar and organ jam, it’s called ‘Keep Smiling People’ and will feature in their live performances for much of the next 10 years. It is to become known, amongst other names, as ‘Careful with that Axe Eugene’.

The track had been recorded earlier in the month for a short film called ‘The Committee’, to which the Floyd had provided the soundtrack. The main character, played by Paul Jones from Manfred Mann, has killed a man by severing his head, then surreally reanimated him by sowing it back on again. The dialogue over this section of the film is about responsibility and criminal action:

Central Figure: I think the whole world is a madhouse. An extended madhouse.
Director: Isn’t that a way of saying that you are mad?

The extract used features the distinctive, resonant ‘octave’ bass line and organ part. At this point the guitar provides colour but is low in the mix and there is no vocal.

In June 68 the band taped a session for the BBC, naming the new instrumental ‘The Murderotic Woman’. This version is a minimalist jam, with the two note bass line continuing throughout and more developed interplay between Rick’s keyboard and Dave’s guitar. As a piece, however, it lacks the dynamics of the live performances and once again there is no scream from Roger. John Peel premiered this recording in August ’68 commenting: ‘Their first number is an instrumental called ‘The Murderotic Woman or Careful With That Axe Eugene’. Please yourselves.

Being rather prudish the BBC seems to have changed the title to ‘The Murderistic Woman’ for later broadcasts – one of several brushes with radio station censorship that the Floyd encountered in their early years.

The First Official Release

Point Me At The Sky - German Edition 1968
Point Me At The Sky – German Edition 1968

The first official release of the track under the title ‘Careful With That Axe Eugene’ was for the B side of their December 1968 single Point Me At The Sky. This version, which became much more widely known owing to its inclusion on the budget compilation Relics, is a laid-back and low-key performance. Nevertheless, it does have Roger’s scream for the first time on a recorded version as well as his abstract vocal sounds at the end. The recording shows the jazzier side of the Floyd with Rick playing vibraphone as well as organ while Dave weaves in fuzzed guitar lines. Nick contributes the distinctive ride cymbal pattern at the start of the track and tom-toms as it builds to the central climax. John Cotner, a musicologist, analyses the track in like this:

‘Broadly, I argue that the 1968 studio single of “Careful with That Axe, Eugene” represents the successful convergence of particular improvisational idioms and conceptual strategies the group had begun to develop in their first two albums. More to the point, the studio track manifests a vital structural-textural rhythm, perception of which suggests a multidimensional sonic-experiential macrocosm: on one plane, a kind of heterophonic textural “infrastructure,” while on the other, a kind of stereophonic space of affective depth. Within this distinction, aspects of the musical language and recording medium continually transform the sonic environment and engage the listener in the process of its experiential unfolding.’

Er, yes…..
For the ‘Massed Gadgets of Auximines’ tour beginning in April 1969, the number took on another guise, being paired with ‘Green is the Colour’ as part of ‘The Journey’ suite. For this it was renamed ‘Beset By Creatures of The Deep’. The Journey itself was part of a project which the band originally hoped would get them a grant from the Arts Council and was inspired by the mythical journey of Odysseus – although this appears to have been transformed into the Journey of Theseus to the Labyrinth of King Minos where the Minotaur dwelt. Needless to say, the arts council passed over this opportunity to fund the band, but the tour was a great success and was their first attempt at combining songs in a single conceptual piece.

During the tour the Floyd also recorded a live version of the instrumental which became part of the Ummaguma set. Recorded in May 1969 at Mother’s in Birmingham and also at the Manchester College of Commerce, the Floyd needed to touch up the recording in the studio owing to equipment failures. Nevertheless, the track is full of atmosphere from Rick’s sinister yet melancholy organ chords at the beginning, though Rogers’ piercing scream and Dave’s blistering solo, to the final, hushed ending. The voices of the crowd at the beginning and the clinking of glasses only add to the sense of an outstanding live club performance.
Scoring A Film

Zabriskie Point Soundtrack
Zabriskie Point Soundtrack

As Pink Floyd’s reputation as a counter-cultural band grew, so did the interest of filmmakers. Barbet Schroder had asked them to score the soundtrack for More in 1969 and in 1970 Antonioni wanted them to write music for Zabriskie Point, a film set in the USA about the growth of student protest and political opposition to the Vietnam war. The Floyd’s experience of working with Antonioni was not a happy one, but they did use the opportunity to work on material which would later become part of the Dark Side of the Moon. But it was ‘Axe’ that Antonioni really wanted: he used it in the stunning final sequence depicting slow motion shots of an exploding house showering consumer goods across the landscape. This version is the best of the studio recordings with a much more powerful bass line, guitar and drums. For this take the track was renamed ‘Come in No. 51 – Your Time Is Up’ (a line from eccentric British comedian Spike Milligan), highlighting the band’s dark sense of humour – Mark, the rebel hero, is killed while attempting to escape the police who are hunting him down for allegedly killing a cop during a student demonstration.
September of 1970 the saw band touring America and playing a TV gig at San Francisco’s Filmore. The hour long show, broadcast by KQED, has become a bootlegger’s favourite, featuring a tracks such as Atom Heart Mother and Granchester Meadows which didn’t make it onto the official Pompeii film. The performance as a whole suffers from the fact it was recorded without an audience, but the version of Axe is interesting for a number of reasons. Firstly the director shows the majority of the performance in psychedelic chromakey colours – an effect very much of its time – to interpret the number as an epic bad trip. Secondly Roger includes the strange animal sounds and whisperings which begin to feature in live versions of the 1970’s. These and the chants from Atom Heart Mother convinced some fans at the time that the tracks had hidden occult meanings. Indeed the track has continued to provide a space in which fans can construct their own narrative, as this internet posting from 2004 shows:

‘An axe murderer claiming their latest victim… played out through music’.

The first part is where he’s sneaking around… muttering gibberish but generally keeping quiet… then the adrenaline builds up as he gets closer to the victim… then eventually, once they’re within reach, he takes to them with his trusty axe :-).

Then we hear the scream of the victim as they realise what’s coming to them. That’s where the band kicks in and it all goes ballistic… as killer and victim flail around wildly. Then it starts to go quiet… as the victim’s life slowly leaves them and then everything slowly fades out.

I think ‘Careful With That Axe, Eugene’, is actually supposed to be a phrase the killer says to the victim just before he kills them… like it’s his catchphrase he uses before each killing.’

The Greatness of Pompeii

By 1971, with the band wanting to move forward and break new ground, they had decided to film their established set to mark the end of the psychedelic era. Director Adrian Maben, teamed up with the band to produce the ‘Live at Pompeii’ film. Rightly regarded as one of the best realisations of the track, Maben’s use of super-imposed images of lava flows and burning screen effects give the performance a sense of apocalyptic violence distilled in Roger’s terrifying scream. The mysterious whispered utterances during this version have supposedly been deciphered as:

‘Down, down. Down, down. The star is screaming.
Beneath the lies. Lie, lie. Tschay, tschay, tschay.
Careful, careful, careful with that axe, Eugene.
The stars are screaming loud’.

Despite their intention to draw a line under the old tracks – partly a response to criticism that the group relied too heavily on the same live material – Axe was still a central part of the set in 1972 and 1973. On stage it was accompanied by pyrotechnic detonations, which, at one concert in the Cobo Hall, Detroit, nearly blew Nick Mason up! Although Maben’s film had shown the band recording ‘Dark Side Of The Moon’ and it was pioneered as part of the live set, the band played the new material alongside Axe and other stalwarts of the old set such as ‘Set The Controls’ and ‘Saucerful of Secrets’. Eventually, Earl’s Court 1973 saw the last regular performance of the number.

Eugene Takes A Rest

Oakland Poster

It wasn’t until 1977 that Eugene saw the light of day again, when it was a surprise encore for the Oakland, California show of that year. Moving with the times instrumentally, this performance spotlighted Rick Wright’s Moog synthesiser as well as Dave Gilmour and Snowy White’s duelling lead guitars.

Although Axe was not played live after this, it remained an influential musical force in the band’s development, particularly for Roger Waters. At the heart of the ‘Careful With That Axe’ is a scream: in 1970 Arthur Janov had written a highly influential book about psychotherapy called ‘The Primal Scream’. As his wife and collaborator Vivian Janov explained:

What the therapy is about, is releasing the tension and the repressed pain of early childhood and that release comes about in the therapy through talking about your life, crying about the pain and sometimes people do shout or scream, but I really try to get away from the idea of screaming because that’s not the usual thing, people usually cry about pain. Through that release, people come to feel very cleansed, very free, very knowledgeable about what really happened to them when they were children. In primal therapy people actually relive the scenes, the painful scenes of their life and have the emotions, the feelings expressed that they really didn’t express when they were children.’

Famously, John Lennon underwent therapy with Janov leading to his raw, emotional album, “John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band”. The album featured a number of songs which were directly inspired by his experience in therapy, including “Remember,” “Isolation”, “Mother,” “My Mummy’s Dead,” and “Working Class Hero.”

By 1978 Roger Waters was writing The Wall: it was as if the unfocused scream of rage in ‘Axe’ had been turned into words. The album itself contains musical and lyrical references to the song. The two note bass riff, which is the foundation of the track, reappears in ‘Goodbye Cruel World’ whilst in ‘One Of My Turns’ Waters sings: ‘Look in the bedroom in the suitcase on the left you’ll find my favourite axe’ In this lyric he plays with the idea of an ‘axe’ as both a weapon and a guitar: a force for creativity and destruction.

Over the ten years since 1968 the wordless howl of anger in ‘Axe’ had become a statement of political and personal philosophy. InDark Side of The MoonWish You Were HereAnimals and The Wall, Waters wanted to explore the ways he saw an unjust society driving people to madness and violence. Yet the seed of this was planted in the politically charged year of ‘68. The aim of the Situationist revolutionaries on the streets of Paris was to ‘disrupt the spectacle’; to smash the hollow show of the consumerist, capitalist society which kept the people smiling as they were exploited. When Waters first envisaged the film version of the Wall he imagined:

a rock and roll audience being bombed and, as they were being blown to pieces, applauding, loving every minute.

In this context the original title of Eugene – ‘Keep Smiling People’ – can be seen as an ironic challenge to Pink Floyd’s audience. In the live Wall shows Waters tried to do just this by building and breaking down the alienating Wall between audience and performer.

So, is ‘Careful With That Axe Eugene’ an acid nightmare, a musical exercise in improvisational minimalism and dynamics or a cry of pain and rage? Whichever it is, there is no doubt that it is one of Pink Floyd’s most powerful and original tracks.

A sketch from The Wall



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